Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Concepts :: Read Naturally, Inc.
The National Reading Panel concluded that there is no single research-based method for developing vocabulary and closing the gap. From its analysis, the panel recommended using a variety of indirect incidental and direct intentional methods of vocabulary instruction. Incidental Vocabulary Learning Most students acquire vocabulary incidentally through indirect exposure to words at home and at school—by listening and talking, by listening to books read aloud to them, and by reading widely on their own.
The amount of reading is important to long-term vocabulary development Cunningham and Stanovich, Extensive reading provides students with repeated or multiple exposures to words and is also one of the means by which students see vocabulary in rich contexts Kamil and Hiebert, Intentional Vocabulary Learning Students need to be explicitly taught methods for intentional vocabulary learning.
According to Michael Graves , effective intentional vocabulary instruction includes:. Students need a wide range of independent word-learning strategies. Vocabulary instruction should aim to engage students in actively thinking about word meanings, the relationships among words, and how we can use words in different situations. This type of rich, deep instruction is most likely to influence comprehension Graves, ; McKeown and Beck, The meaning of a new word should be explained to students rather than just providing a dictionary definition for the word—which may be difficult for students to understand.
According to Isabel Beck, two basic principles should be followed in developing student-friendly explanations or definitions Beck et al. These are usually created by teachers, but they can sometimes be found in commercial reading programs. Research shows that when words and easy-to-understand explanations are introduced in context, knowledge of those words increases Biemiller and Boote, and word meanings are better learned Stahl and Fairbanks, Research by Nagy and Scott showed that students use contextual analysis to infer the meaning of a word by looking closely at surrounding text.
Since students encounter such an enormous number of words as they read, some researchers believe that even a small improvement in the ability to use context clues has the potential to produce substantial, long-term vocabulary growth Nagy, Herman, and Anderson, ; Nagy, Anderson, and Herman, ; Swanborn and de Glopper, The student applies each target word to a new, familiar context.
The student does not have to spend a lot of time making a great drawing. The important thing is that the sketch makes sense and helps the student connect with the meaning of the word. Applying the target words provides another context for learning word meanings. When students are challenged to apply the target words to their own experiences, they have another opportunity to understand the meaning of each word at a personal level. This allows for deep processing of the meaning of each word.
The ability to analyze word parts also helps when students are faced with unknown vocabulary. If students know the meanings of root words and affixes, they are more likely to understand a word containing these word parts. Explicit instruction in word parts includes teaching meanings of word parts and disassembling and reassembling words to derive meaning Baumann et al. Semantic maps help students develop connections among words and increase learning of vocabulary words Baumann et al.
For example, by writing an example, a non-example, a synonym, and an antonym, students must deeply process the word persist. Word consciousness is an interest in and awareness of words Anderson and Nagy, ; Graves and Watts-Taffe, Students who are word conscious are aware of the words around them—those they read and hear and those they write and speak Graves and Watts-Taffe, Word-conscious students use words skillfully.
They are aware of the subtleties of word meaning. They are curious about language, and they enjoy playing with words and investigating the origins and histories of words. Teachers need to take word-consciousness into account throughout their instructional day—not just during vocabulary lessons Scott and Nagy, Once language categories and figurative language have been taught, students should be encouraged to watch for examples of these in all content areas.
Take Aim is appropriate for students who can read at least at a fourth grade level. Take Aim is available in two formats:. Each Take Aim level teaches carefully selected target words in the context of engaging, non-fiction stories. The target words are systematically taught using the research-based strategies described above.
The intensive and focused lesson design helps students learn the target words and internalize the skills and strategies necessary for independently learning unknown words. Learn more about how Take Aim teaches vocabulary and word-learning strategies:.
Read Naturally also offers a Splat-O-Nym app for iPad that teaches vocabulary using game-based technology. Splat-O-Nym quizzes students with synonym questions, antonym questions, and meaning-from-context questions and awards points for correct answers.
These other Read Naturally programs do not focus on vocabulary but include activities that support vocabulary development:. Anderson, R. Baumann, J. Flood, D. Lapp, J. Squire, and J.
Jensen eds. Beck, I. Bringing words to life. Robust vocabulary instruction , New York: Guilford Press. Robust vocabulary instruction, 2nd ed. Biemiller, A. Chall, J. Cunningham, A. Graves, M. Taylor, M. Graves, and P. All was confusion and action, and every moment life and limb were in peril.
There was imperative need to be constantly alert; for these dogs and men were not town dogs and men.
It is true, it was a vicarious experience, else he would not have lived to profit by it. Thirty or forty huskies ran to the spot and surrounded the combatants in an intent and silent circle. Buck did not comprehend that silent intentness, nor the eager way with which they were licking their chops. Curly rushed her antagonist , who struck again and leaped aside. Two minutes from the time Curly went down, the last of her assailants were clubbed off.
Francois was stem, demanding instant obedience, and by virtue of his whip receiving instant obedience; while Dave, who was an experienced wheeler, nipped Buck’s hind quarters whenever he was in error. Spitz was the leader, likewise experienced, and while he could not always get at Buck, he growled sharp reproof now and again, or cunningly threw his weight in the traces to jerk Buck into the way he should go. Billee’s one fault was his excessive good nature, while Joe was the very opposite, sour and introspective , with a perpetual snarl and a malignant eye.
Billee’s one fault was his excessive good nature, while Joe was the very opposite, sour and introspective, with a perpetual snarl and a malignant eye. Billee wagged his tail appeasingly, turned to run when he saw that appeasement was of no avail, and cried still appeasingly when Spitz’s sharp teeth scored his flank. Billee wagged his tail appeasingly, turned to run when he saw that appeasement was of no avail , and cried still appeasingly when Spitz’s sharp teeth scored his flank.
But no matter how Spitz circled, Joe whirled around on his heels to face him, mane bristling, ears laid back, lips writhing and snarling, jaws clipping together as fast as he could snap, and eyes diabolically gleaming–the incarnation of belligerent fear. So terrible was his appearance that Spitz was forced to forego disciplining him; but to cover his own discomfiture he turned upon the inoffensive and wailing Billee and drove him to the confines of the camp.
By evening Perrault secured another dog, an old husky, long and lean and gaunt , with a battle-scarred face and a single eye which flashed a warning of prowess that commanded respect. Of this offence Buck was unwittingly guilty, and the first knowledge he had of his indiscretion was when Sol-leks whirled upon him and slashed his shoulder to the bone for three inches up and down. His only apparent ambition , like Dave’s, was to be left alone; though, as Buck was afterward to learn, each of them possessed one other and even more vital ambition.
The tent, illumined by a candle, glowed warmly in the midst of the white plain; and when he, as a matter of course, entered it, both Perrault and Francois bombarded him with curses and cooking utensils, till he recovered from his consternation and fled ignominiously into the outer cold. With drooping tail and shivering body, very forlorn indeed, he aimlessly circled the tent. He whined placatingly, squirmed and wriggled to show his good will and intentions, and even ventured , as a bribe for peace, to lick Buck’s face with his warm wet tongue.
The day had been long and arduous , and he slept soundly and comfortably, though he growled and barked and wrestled with bad dreams. Nor did he open his eyes till roused by the noises of the waking camp. It was a token that he was harking back through his own life to the lives of his forebears; for he was a civilized dog, an unduly civilized dog, and of his own experience knew no trap and so could not of himself fear it.
As courier for the Canadian Government, bearing important despatches, he was anxious to secure the best dogs, and he was particularly gladdened by the possession of Buck. Buck was glad to be gone, and though the work was hard he found he did not particularly despise it.
Apt scholar that he was, they were equally apt teachers, never allowing him to linger long in error, and enforcing their teaching with their sharp teeth.
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